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Other smaller groups include the Fulani, Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv, and Edo.Prior to their conquest by Europeans, these ethnic groups had separate and independent histories.She referred to the area as Nigeria, after the Niger River, which dominates much of the country's landscape. More than 250 ethnic tribes call present-day Nigeria home.The three largest and most dominant ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo (pronounced ee-bo).In northern Nigeria many people who are not ethnic Hausas speak both Hausa and their own tribal language.Hausa is the oldest known written language in West Africa, dating back to before 1000 The dominant indigenous languages of the south are Yoruba and Igbo.Nigeria has three main environmental regions: savanna, tropical forests, and coastal wetlands.These environmental regions greatly affect the cultures of the people who live there.
The wet tropical forests to the south are good for farming fruits and vegetables—main income producers for the Yoruba, Igbo, and others in this area.Today it is often used in ethnically mixed urban areas as a common form of communication among people who have not had formal education in English. Because there is little feeling of national unity among Nigeria's people, there is little in terms of national symbolism.